Titolo Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation
Rivista  Electromagn Biol Med.
Numero  2015 Jul 7:1-16.
Enti 1 Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine,
2 Department of Biophysics, Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Bila Tserkva,Ukraine,
3 School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington,IN, USA,
4 A.I.Virtanen Institute, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, and
5Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
Link http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26151230




Questo studio mira a rivedere i dati sperimentali sugli effetti ossidativi delle radiazioni a radiofrequenza nelle cellule viventi. L'analisi della letteratura scientifica peer-reviewed attualmente disponibile rivela effetti molecolari indotti causati da tali radiazioni nelle cellule viventi; questo include un'attivazione significativa di processi chiave che generano specie reattive dell'ossigeno (ROS - Reactive Oxygen Species), attivazione della perossidazione, danno ossidativo del DNA e cambiamenti nell'attività degli enzimi antiossidanti. Questa review indica che su 100 studi peer-reviewed attualmente disponibili riguardanti gli effetti ossidativi nei sistemi biologici, in generale, 93 hanno confermato che le radiazioni a radiofrequenza inducono effetti ossidativi nei sistemi biologici. Una serie di effetti biologici/sulla salute causati da radaiazioni a radiofrequenza a bassa intensità sono spiegati dall'ampio potenziale patogeno dei ROS indotti e il loro coinvolgimento nei percorsi di segnalazione cellulare, incluse le patologie tumorali e non-tumorali. In conclusione, la nostra analisi dimostra che le radiazioni a radiofrequenza a bassa intensità sono un chiaro agente ossidativo per le cellule viventi con un elevato potenziale patogeno e che lo stress ossidativo indotto dall'esposizione a radiazioni a radiofrequenza dovrebbe essere riconosciuto come uno dei meccanismi principali dell'attività biologica di questo tipo di radiazioni.


Breve estratto:

... the level of indoor background RFR in industrialized countries increased 5,000-fold from 1985 to 2005

To date, molecular mechanisms of non-thermal effects of RFR are still a bottleneck in the research on the biological/health effects of low-intensity RFR, although recently many studies have been carried out on metabolic changes in living cells under low-intensity RFR, and comprehensive reviews were published (Belyaev, 2010; Consales et al., 2012; Desai et al., 2009; Yakymenko et al., 2011). In the present work, we analyze the results of molecular effects of low-intensity RFR
in living cells and model systems, with a special emphasis on oxidative effects and free radical mechanisms. It might seem paradoxical that, despite being non-ionizing, RFR can induce significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells. We believe that the analysis of recent findings will allow recognition of a general picture of the potential health effects of already ubiquitous and ever-increasing RFR.

The main indexes of RFR are (i) frequency (Hz); (ii) intensity or power density (PD) of radiation (W/m2 or mW/cm2); (iii) its modulated or non-modulated nature; and (iv) continuous or discontinuous pattern of radiation. For the absorbed RFR energy, a parameter of specific absorption rate (SAR) is used (W/kg).

As to the international safety limits, the ICNIRP recommendations restrict intensity of RFR to 450–1000 μW/cm2 (depending on the frequency of radiation) and the SAR value to 2 W/kg, as calculated for human heads and torsos (ICNIRP, 1998). These indexes were adopted by ICNIRP based on the behavioral response of laboratory rats, which were exposed to gradually increased intensities of RFR to determine the point at which the animals became thermally distressed (Gandhi et al., 2012).

Section Headings

Physical/biophysical effects of low-intensity RFR in living cells

Generation of reactive oxygen species under RFR exposure in living cells

Oxidative damage of DNA under RFR exposure - To date more than hundred papers have been published on mutagenic effects of RFR and most of them revealed significant effects (Ruediger, 2009).

Free radicals induced under the RFR exposure can perturb cellular signaling

Oxidative effects and non-cancer health effects of RFR

Oxidative effects and potential carcinogenicity of RFR


The analysis of modern data on biological effects of low-intensity RFR leads to a firm conclusion that this physical agent is a powerful oxidative stressor for living cell. The oxidative efficiency of RFR can be mediated via changes in activities of key ROS-generating systems, including mitochondria and non-phagocytic NADH oxidases, via direct effects on water molecules, and via induction of conformation changes in biologically important macromolecules. In turn, a broad biological potential of ROS and other free radicals, including both their mutagenic effects and their signaling regulatory potential, makes RFR a potentially hazardous factor for human health. We suggest minimizing the intensity and time of RFR exposures, and taking a precautionary approach towards wireless technologies in everyday
human life.